magjong

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Egypt Mahjong - Triple Dimensions. Mahjong Rain of Tiles. Despite these similarities, there are many regional variations to the rules including rather different scoring systems, criteria for legal winning hands and even private table rules which distinguish some variations as notably different styles of mahjong.

It is said that the clacking of tiles during shuffling resembles the chattering of sparrows. It has also been suggested that the name came from an evolution of an earlier card game called Ma-Tiao which mahjong is supposedly roughly adapted from.

There are many highly varied versions of mahjong both in rules and tiles used. For these reasons Hong Kong mahjong is a suitable variation for the introduction of game rules and play and is the focus of this article.

Old Hong Kong Mahjong is played with a standard set of Mahjong tiles though cards may be used. Sets often include counters to keep score , dice to decide how to deal and a marker to show who the dealer is and which round is being played.

A set of Mahjong tiles usually has at least tiles most commonly ; however, sets originating from the United States or Southeast Asia will probably have more.

Mahjong tiles are split into 3 categories: Suits, Honors, and Bonuses. There are 3 suits of simples and in each suit the tiles are numbered from 1 to 9.

There are 4 identical copies of each simples tile totaling simples tiles. The bamboo suit is also known as "sticks" or "bams" suit; the first tile usually has a bird traditionally, a peacock or sparrow instead of a single bamboo.

The dots suit is also known as the "wheels", "balls", or "coins" suit. The characters suit is also known as the "cracks" or "numbers" suit since the top character is the Chinese number, and the bottom character is the Chinese number "ten thousand".

There are two different sets of Honors tiles: In Mahjong, East not North is the beginning. The Dragons are Red, Green and White.

The white dragon has a blue or black frame on the face of the piece or in some sets is entirely blank. These tiles have no numerical sequence like the simples for example the bamboo pieces number 1 to 9.

Like the simples, there are four identical copies of each Honors tile, for a total of 28 Honors tiles. There are two sets of Bonus tiles: The flower and season tiles play a unique role in the mechanics of the game.

When drawn, the Bonus tile is not added into a player's hand but are instead set aside and kept near the player's other tiles for scoring purposes should they win the hand, and an extra tile is drawn in replacement of the Bonus tile.

In addition, unlike the Simple and Honors tiles, there is only a single tile of each Bonus tile, so there are a total of four flower and four season tiles in the set.

The tiles have a different artistic rendering of a specific type of flower or season. It is not necessary to know the names or the Chinese characters of each bonus tile, only the number, as this is associated with a specific direction, and the player receives bonus points when the Bonus tile matches the seat direction.

There is no relation between the bonus tile "bamboo" flower and the bamboo suit of simple tiles ex. In traditional Chinese culture, the Four Gentlemen are the plum winter , orchid spring , bamboo summer , and chrysanthemum autumn which are regarded as the representative plants of those seasons.

The dealer is chosen by various means. For example, each player throws dice with the highest count taking the dealer position, second highest taking south etc.

Or one player may place one tile of each wind face down and shuffle them. Each player randomly select one of these tiles and these tiles dictate their wind position.

Each player sits down at their respective position called the wind position at the table in positions of an inverted compass: East is dealer, the right of the dealer is South, across is West and the left is North.

The order of play is traditionally counter-clockwise. A match consists of four rounds, each representing a "prevailing wind," starting with East.

Once the first round is completed, a second round begins with South as the prevailing wind, and so on. Wind position is significant in that it affects the scoring of the game.

A Mahjong set with Winds in play will usually include a separate prevailing wind marker typically a die marked with the Wind characters in a holder.

In each round at least four hands are played, with each player taking the position of dealer. In the first hand of each round, Player 1 winner of the dice toss is East and therefore dealer.

In the second hand, Player 2 takes the East position, shifting the seat winds amongst the players counterclockwise though players do not physically move their chairs.

This continues until all four players have been East dealer. A marker is used to mark which player is East and often the round number.

In sets with racks, a rack may be marked differently to denote the dealer. Whenever a player in the East position dealer wins a hand, or if there is no winner a draw or "goulash hand" , an extra hand is played with the same seating positions and prevailing wind as in the previous hand.

This means that a match may potentially have no limit to the number of hands played though some players will set a limit of three consecutive hands allowed with the same seat positions and prevailing wind.

All tiles are placed face down on the table and are shuffled. By convention all players should participate in shuffling using both hands moving the pieces around the table rigorously and loudly for a lengthy period.

Tiles may get flipped up during this process and players should flip them facing down as soon as possible to avoid identifying the location of the revealed tiles.

Each player then stacks a row of 18 tiles, two tiles high in front of them for a total of 36 tiles. Players then push each side of their stack together to form a square wall.

Regular players usually place their stacks in a slightly diagonal position about 20 to 30 degrees anti-clockwise ; the right end of their stack is pushed slightly further in to the centre of the table to meet almost the middle of the stack of the player on the right.

This creates a smaller square wall the length of about half of each stack, with walls extended away from each corner of the square.

The diagonally positioned stacks and a smaller square creates a bigger space for players' tiles and also makes an ergonomic position for drawing tiles from the stack.

The dealer throws three dice in the square wall and sums up the total. Counting anti-clockwise so that the dealer is 1 or 5, 9, 13, 17 , so that south player to the right is 2 or 6, 10, 14, 18 , etc.

Some house rules may use only two dice but have double throws to increase randomness. In the case of double throws, the player of the chosen wall makes the second throw.

Using the same total on the dice or the total of the two throws , the player whose wall is chosen then counts the stacks of tiles from right to left.

For double throws, the count may extend to the left side player's stack. This determines the location where the 'deck' of tiles is cut.

Starting from the left of the stacks counted, the dealer draws four tiles for himself, and players in anti-clockwise order draw blocks of four tiles until all players have 12 tiles, so that the stacks decrease clockwise.

Each player then draws one last tile to make a tile hand. Dealing does not have to be strictly this way and may be done quite differently based on house rules.

Tiles may flip over when being dealt and players should agree in advance on how to deal with the problem. Each player now sets aside any Flowers or Seasons they may have drawn and takes turns to draw replacement piece s from the wall in the anti-clockwise direction.

If a player gets any Flowers or Seasons tiles in the replacement draw, the players must wait for the next turn to draw replacement tiles.

The dealer draws a piece from the wall in clockwise direction, adding it to their hand. Typically, this draw is performed during the initial deal to speed up play.

If this does not complete a legal hand, the dealer then discards a piece throwing it into the middle of the wall with no particular order in mind. Each player in turn, in anti-clockwise direction, draws a tile from the wall; as long as the tile drawn is not one of the Bonus tiles, the player proceeds to discard a tile either the tile just drawn, or a tile in the hand to maintain a hand of The discarded tile is thrown into the centre and, if desired, the player announces out loud what the piece is.

The other players have an opportunity to seize the discarded tile; if no one takes it, the turn continues to the next player.

Play continues this way until one player has a legal winning hand and calls out "Mahjong" while revealing their hand. During play, each player's hand should always be 13 tiles meaning in each turn a tile must be picked up and another discarded.

The count of 13 tiles do not include any Bonus tiles Flowers and Seasons , which are set to the side, nor does it include the fourth added piece of a Kong.

If a player is seen to have fewer or more than 13 tiles in their hand outside of their turn they are penalised. A winning hand consists of 14 tiles.

Since players always have 13 tiles in their hand during play, they must win by either drawing a piece from the wall that completes a tile hand "winning from the wall" or claiming a discard from another player which completes a tile hand "winning by discard".

The winning hand is made of four melds a specific pattern of three pieces and the eyes a pair of identical pieces.

The exceptions to this rule are the special hands listed below. Most players play with a table minimum, meaning a winning hand must score a minimum number of points which can be seen in the scoring section.

In Hong Kong Mahjong the most common point set is three but can be higher or lower depending on house rules. Melds are groups of tiles within the player's hand, consisting of either a Pong three identical tiles , a Kong four identical tiles , a Chow three Simple tiles all of the same suit, in numerical sequence , or Eyes two identical tiles needed in a winning hand.

Melds may be formed by drawing a tile from the wall, or by seizing another player's discard. There are rules governing which player has priority for a discard, and whether the meld should be exposed displayed to all players or remain concealed, depending on the manner in which the meld is formed.

You may form a Pong with any Simple or Honours tile. Bonus tiles Flowers or Seasons cannot be used to form a Pong because they are set aside and there are not three identical bonus tiles in the set.

The tiles must be identical you cannot mix suits. A Pong may either be concealed formed by drawing tiles or exposed formed by seizing another player's discard.

Consider a Kong the same as a Pong with an additional tile to make a complete set of four. There are three ways to form a Kong.

Whenever a Kong is formed, that player must draw an extra tile from the end of the wall and then discard a tile. The fourth piece of a Kong is not considered as one of the 13 tiles a player must always have in their hand.

The meld must be in absolute numerical sequence and all in the same suit. Players cannot skip numbers or meld from the 8 or 9 to 1 or 2.

Honours tiles cannot be used to make Chows because they have no numerical value, and Bonus tiles Flowers and Seasons also cannot be used to make a Chow.

A player can steal a discard to form a Chow only from the player whose turn was immediately before theirs; however, a player forming a Chow from a seized piece has the lowest priority for that tile.

Any other player that needs that tile to make a Pong, make a Kong, or to win may seize that piece instead. Like the Pong, the Chow is either concealed formed by drawing tiles or exposed formed by seizing the prior player's discard.

Whenever a player draws a flower or season, it is announced and then placed to the side it is not considered a part of the tile hand, but in the event that player wins, he or she will earn a bonus point for them and the last tile of the wall is drawn as a replacement tile so that the player has the 14 pieces needed before their discard.

This may happen successively in a player's turn. When a player discards a tile, other players may steal the tile to complete a meld.

Stealing tiles has both advantages quickly forming a winning hand and scoring extra points and disadvantages being forced to reveal part of one's hand to other players and not being able to change the meld once declared.

When a meld Pong , Kong or Chow is declared through a discard, the player must state the type of meld to be declared and expose the meld by place the three or four tiles face up.

The player must then discard a tile, and play continues to the right. If the player who melds a discard is not directly after the discarder in order of play , one or two players will essentially miss their turn as play continues anti-clockwise from the player who declared the meld.

If multiple players call for a discarded tile, priority for the discard depends on the declared action of the player stealing the discard.

Going Mahjong is the act of declaring a winning hand, either by stealing a discard or by drawing a winning tile. If at any point in the game a player can use another player's discard to complete a legal hand and with the agreed minimum points , they yell out 'Mahjong!

This ends the hand, and scoring commences. If more than one player can use a discard to go mahjong win the hand there are two ways to resolve the issue depending on agreed table rules: Either the players count the points they would win with the discard and the winner is the one with the higher score, or the winner is simply the player closest to the discarder in order of turn.

Alternatively, a player may also win by drawing a tile that completes a legal hand. This is called "winning from the wall". In Hong Kong mahjong, winning from the wall doubles the number of base points each loser must pay.

A rarely occurring and high-scoring feature of Hong Kong Mahjong is a move called robbing the Kong. If a player declares a Kong either by melding it or adding a fourth piece to a Pong to form a Kong or declaring a concealed Kong but another player can use that piece to complete a hand, the completing player takes priority to go Mahjong win the hand and may steal that piece from the player who intended to declare the Kong.

By logic, since there are only four identical copies of each Simple and Honours tile in a complete set, if two separate players are looking to form a Pong with that tile, they each have two of the same tile, and no free tiles remain in the wall to make a Pong.

Below are two examples of winning hands. A winning hand must consist of four melds Pongs, Kongs, or Chows and a pair eyes and must also score the agreed table minimum.

Hand formed with four Pongs and the eyes pair of East wind. Only bamboo is used no other simples , scoring extra points clean hand. A high scoring hand formed using only circles, known as a pure hand.

Hand is made of Chows, Pongs and the eyes of circles. Most players include table variations in their games, of which some non-standard are included.

The hands of seven different pairs and 13 orphans are examples which do not have four melds and the eyes. They are described in more detail below.

The player may forfeit points to the other players. Another potential penalty is the player who called out the false mahjong must play the rest of the hand with their tiles face up on the table so other players can see them open hand.

If the dealer wins the hand, they will remain the dealer and an extra hand is played in addition to the minimum 16 hands in a match.

An extra hand is also played if there is no winner. When there is no winner it is known as a "goulash hand". Depending on table rules, the winner of the next game may take an agreed number of points from each player, carrying over the points from the non-winning hand to the winning one.

If there are two or three goulash hands in a row then the winner would collect a considerable number of points from each player on top of their scoring hand.

Because extra hands may be played every time a dealer wins or if there is a goulash hand, a match of 16 hands can easily become a match of 20 or even much more.

As table rules add a large amount flexibility for players, they can choose to disregard the rule of extra hands and pass on the dealership regardless of who wins or if it results in a goulash hand.

This puts a maximum estimated limit on the game duration and provides some amount of predictability. Players may agree on table rules if the pace of the game is brisk or leisurely.

For brisk games players may agree that a couple seconds after a discard are allowed for a "window of opportunity" before the next player picks up from the wall.

Usually it is agreed once the next player has waited the duration of the "window of opportunity" and draws a tile from the wall, the previous discard is lost and cannot be claimed.

This is a Mahjong game for children. The cartoon characters are familiar to everybody, aren't you? This is the Looney Tunes Mahjong. Free Online Mahjong Games The best online mahjong games for everyone.

War mahjong Instructions in the game. Mahjong Connect This is a different style of mahjongg, where you need to match two tiles by connecting them with a pathway.

Mahjong Tower 2 Mahjong Tower is a puzzle game based on a classic Chinese majong game.

magjong -

Eine Runde besteht aus mindestens vier Spielen. Kombinieren Sie drei oder mehr gleichfarbige Edelsteine in unserem kostenlosen Online-Spiel. Diamond Party 3-Gewinnt Spiele. Ein Spieler kann gegen drei durch die Software nachgebildete Spieler antreten. Klicken Sie auf die Glühbirne und lassen Sie sich einen Hinweis geben. Worum geht es bei Mahjong? Um den Markenschutz nicht zu verletzen, wurde diese Schreibung vielfältig variiert. Die poetischen Namen dieser Spielbilder trugen sicher zur Popularität des Spiels in den er Jahren wesentlich bei, als jedoch vor allem in den USA unzählige neue special hands erfunden wurden und das Regelwerk immer komplizierter wurde, mag diese Vielzahl von Sonderregeln zum plötzlichen Verschwinden des Mah-Jongg-Spieles geführt haben. In der Rangliste [7] der European Mahjong Association [8] werden nur Ergebnisse berücksichtigt, die aufgrund dieser Spielregeln erzielt wurden. Während die Steine der Hauptfarben jeweils nur einmal vorkommen und keine Paare bilden können, dürfen die Blumenziegel und die Jahreszeitenziegel jeweils untereinander beliebig kombiniert werden, beispielsweise Pflaume mit Orchidee oder Winter mit Frühling.

Master Qwan's Majong is the classic matching game. Your goal is to clear the playing area of tiles by matching pairs before time runs out.

This is a different style of mahjongg, where you need to match two tiles by connecting them with a pathway.

Mahjong Tower is a puzzle game based on a classic Chinese majong game. The objective is to remove all the tiles from the board. Another twist to the classic Mah Jongg puzzle game.

Match pieces to ultimately remove all of them. This is a Mahjong game for children. The cartoon characters are familiar to everybody, aren't you?

This is the Looney Tunes Mahjong. Free Online Mahjong Games The best online mahjong games for everyone. In the case of double throws, the player of the chosen wall makes the second throw.

Using the same total on the dice or the total of the two throws , the player whose wall is chosen then counts the stacks of tiles from right to left.

For double throws, the count may extend to the left side player's stack. This determines the location where the 'deck' of tiles is cut.

Starting from the left of the stacks counted, the dealer draws four tiles for himself, and players in anti-clockwise order draw blocks of four tiles until all players have 12 tiles, so that the stacks decrease clockwise.

Each player then draws one last tile to make a tile hand. Dealing does not have to be strictly this way and may be done quite differently based on house rules.

Tiles may flip over when being dealt and players should agree in advance on how to deal with the problem.

Each player now sets aside any Flowers or Seasons they may have drawn and takes turns to draw replacement piece s from the wall in the anti-clockwise direction.

If a player gets any Flowers or Seasons tiles in the replacement draw, the players must wait for the next turn to draw replacement tiles. The dealer draws a piece from the wall in clockwise direction, adding it to their hand.

Typically, this draw is performed during the initial deal to speed up play. If this does not complete a legal hand, the dealer then discards a piece throwing it into the middle of the wall with no particular order in mind.

Each player in turn, in anti-clockwise direction, draws a tile from the wall; as long as the tile drawn is not one of the Bonus tiles, the player proceeds to discard a tile either the tile just drawn, or a tile in the hand to maintain a hand of The discarded tile is thrown into the centre and, if desired, the player announces out loud what the piece is.

The other players have an opportunity to seize the discarded tile; if no one takes it, the turn continues to the next player.

Play continues this way until one player has a legal winning hand and calls out "Mahjong" while revealing their hand. During play, each player's hand should always be 13 tiles meaning in each turn a tile must be picked up and another discarded.

The count of 13 tiles do not include any Bonus tiles Flowers and Seasons , which are set to the side, nor does it include the fourth added piece of a Kong.

If a player is seen to have fewer or more than 13 tiles in their hand outside of their turn they are penalised.

A winning hand consists of 14 tiles. Since players always have 13 tiles in their hand during play, they must win by either drawing a piece from the wall that completes a tile hand "winning from the wall" or claiming a discard from another player which completes a tile hand "winning by discard".

The winning hand is made of four melds a specific pattern of three pieces and the eyes a pair of identical pieces. The exceptions to this rule are the special hands listed below.

Most players play with a table minimum, meaning a winning hand must score a minimum number of points which can be seen in the scoring section.

In Hong Kong Mahjong the most common point set is three but can be higher or lower depending on house rules.

Melds are groups of tiles within the player's hand, consisting of either a Pong three identical tiles , a Kong four identical tiles , a Chow three Simple tiles all of the same suit, in numerical sequence , or Eyes two identical tiles needed in a winning hand.

Melds may be formed by drawing a tile from the wall, or by seizing another player's discard. There are rules governing which player has priority for a discard, and whether the meld should be exposed displayed to all players or remain concealed, depending on the manner in which the meld is formed.

You may form a Pong with any Simple or Honours tile. Bonus tiles Flowers or Seasons cannot be used to form a Pong because they are set aside and there are not three identical bonus tiles in the set.

The tiles must be identical you cannot mix suits. A Pong may either be concealed formed by drawing tiles or exposed formed by seizing another player's discard.

Consider a Kong the same as a Pong with an additional tile to make a complete set of four. There are three ways to form a Kong. Whenever a Kong is formed, that player must draw an extra tile from the end of the wall and then discard a tile.

The fourth piece of a Kong is not considered as one of the 13 tiles a player must always have in their hand. The meld must be in absolute numerical sequence and all in the same suit.

Players cannot skip numbers or meld from the 8 or 9 to 1 or 2. Honours tiles cannot be used to make Chows because they have no numerical value, and Bonus tiles Flowers and Seasons also cannot be used to make a Chow.

A player can steal a discard to form a Chow only from the player whose turn was immediately before theirs; however, a player forming a Chow from a seized piece has the lowest priority for that tile.

Any other player that needs that tile to make a Pong, make a Kong, or to win may seize that piece instead. Like the Pong, the Chow is either concealed formed by drawing tiles or exposed formed by seizing the prior player's discard.

Whenever a player draws a flower or season, it is announced and then placed to the side it is not considered a part of the tile hand, but in the event that player wins, he or she will earn a bonus point for them and the last tile of the wall is drawn as a replacement tile so that the player has the 14 pieces needed before their discard.

This may happen successively in a player's turn. When a player discards a tile, other players may steal the tile to complete a meld. Stealing tiles has both advantages quickly forming a winning hand and scoring extra points and disadvantages being forced to reveal part of one's hand to other players and not being able to change the meld once declared.

When a meld Pong , Kong or Chow is declared through a discard, the player must state the type of meld to be declared and expose the meld by place the three or four tiles face up.

The player must then discard a tile, and play continues to the right. If the player who melds a discard is not directly after the discarder in order of play , one or two players will essentially miss their turn as play continues anti-clockwise from the player who declared the meld.

If multiple players call for a discarded tile, priority for the discard depends on the declared action of the player stealing the discard.

Going Mahjong is the act of declaring a winning hand, either by stealing a discard or by drawing a winning tile. If at any point in the game a player can use another player's discard to complete a legal hand and with the agreed minimum points , they yell out 'Mahjong!

This ends the hand, and scoring commences. If more than one player can use a discard to go mahjong win the hand there are two ways to resolve the issue depending on agreed table rules: Either the players count the points they would win with the discard and the winner is the one with the higher score, or the winner is simply the player closest to the discarder in order of turn.

Alternatively, a player may also win by drawing a tile that completes a legal hand. This is called "winning from the wall".

In Hong Kong mahjong, winning from the wall doubles the number of base points each loser must pay. A rarely occurring and high-scoring feature of Hong Kong Mahjong is a move called robbing the Kong.

If a player declares a Kong either by melding it or adding a fourth piece to a Pong to form a Kong or declaring a concealed Kong but another player can use that piece to complete a hand, the completing player takes priority to go Mahjong win the hand and may steal that piece from the player who intended to declare the Kong.

By logic, since there are only four identical copies of each Simple and Honours tile in a complete set, if two separate players are looking to form a Pong with that tile, they each have two of the same tile, and no free tiles remain in the wall to make a Pong.

Below are two examples of winning hands. A winning hand must consist of four melds Pongs, Kongs, or Chows and a pair eyes and must also score the agreed table minimum.

Hand formed with four Pongs and the eyes pair of East wind. Only bamboo is used no other simples , scoring extra points clean hand.

A high scoring hand formed using only circles, known as a pure hand. Hand is made of Chows, Pongs and the eyes of circles.

Most players include table variations in their games, of which some non-standard are included. The hands of seven different pairs and 13 orphans are examples which do not have four melds and the eyes.

They are described in more detail below. The player may forfeit points to the other players. Another potential penalty is the player who called out the false mahjong must play the rest of the hand with their tiles face up on the table so other players can see them open hand.

If the dealer wins the hand, they will remain the dealer and an extra hand is played in addition to the minimum 16 hands in a match.

An extra hand is also played if there is no winner. When there is no winner it is known as a "goulash hand". Depending on table rules, the winner of the next game may take an agreed number of points from each player, carrying over the points from the non-winning hand to the winning one.

If there are two or three goulash hands in a row then the winner would collect a considerable number of points from each player on top of their scoring hand.

Because extra hands may be played every time a dealer wins or if there is a goulash hand, a match of 16 hands can easily become a match of 20 or even much more.

As table rules add a large amount flexibility for players, they can choose to disregard the rule of extra hands and pass on the dealership regardless of who wins or if it results in a goulash hand.

This puts a maximum estimated limit on the game duration and provides some amount of predictability. Players may agree on table rules if the pace of the game is brisk or leisurely.

For brisk games players may agree that a couple seconds after a discard are allowed for a "window of opportunity" before the next player picks up from the wall.

Usually it is agreed once the next player has waited the duration of the "window of opportunity" and draws a tile from the wall, the previous discard is lost and cannot be claimed.

Old Hong Kong scoring is relatively simple. There is only one winner or if there is a draw the hand is replayed. The winner must have a legal hand that meets the minimum faan points agreed to in advance not including any bonus points.

Only the winner scores, the other players pay the winner various sums. After each hand ends, the winner counts all of his or her faan points.

A concealed meld is one that contains no tiles stolen from another players discard. A concealed hand is one made up of only concealed melds.

Many variations distinguish between a concealed hand winning from the wall and a semi concealed hand the last tile is a stolen discard.

In most mahjong variations having a concealed hand can be valuable in scoring. Concealed hands only the case with a few limit hands or half-limit hands thirteen orphans, heavenly gates, four concealed pongs as well as a complete hand seven pairs and over several melds three concealed pongs.

A winning hand must include an agreed minimum amount of faan value often 3. Some examples of scoring include:.

The losers pay the winning player points based on several criteria and depending on whether the game is for fun or for money.

How points are reckoned is agreed by players beforehand. For example, they can keep a tally, exchange chips or pay one another with money.

The faan value of a hand is converted into base points which are then used to calculate the points the losers pay the winner. The table is progressive, doubling the number of base points when reaching a certain faan point target.

This table is based on play where 3 faan is the minimum needed in order to win with a legal hand. If a player has 3 faan then his hand is worth one base point.

A winning hand with 9 faan is worth four base points. Losing players must give the winning player the value of these base points.

The following special cases result in doubled base points:. If two of these criteria apply to any player, he must double and then redouble the points owed to the winner.

Hong Kong Mahjong is essentially a payment system of doubling and redoubling where winning from the wall adds great value to the final payment and where the dealer is highly rewarded or penalised if he or she wins or loses.

In Hong Kong Mahjong there are a series of "limit hands". These are exceptional hands, difficult to obtain and are very valuable in point scoring.

As many table rules put a limit on the amount of points a winners hand can score, full limit hands score that maximum.

Table rules dictate if these rare and special hands are allowed, which ones, and the limit for scoring. A common scoring limit is 64 points, which is the highest base points doubled twice.

A winner receives the scoring limit from each player without any doubling. Some limit hands by necessity must be completely concealed not discards used or semi-concealed the only discard used is the one needed to go mahjong.

This includes the 13 orphans, 4 concealed pongs, heavenly hand and earthly hand. It is usually expected that the heavenly gates hand be concealed or semi-concealed.

As for the dragon limit hands and the great winds, table rules dictate if the hand must be concealed or not.

Some table rules claim that a semi-concealed hand winning from a discard scores a half-limit. Some groups also play with the "great Flowers" rule.

If a player picks up all four Flowers and all four Seasons during their hand, they instantly win the hand and receive the maximum points from all of the players.

This is exceptionally rare. Variations may have far more complicated scoring systems, add or remove tiles, and include far more scoring elements and limit hands.

In many places, players often observe one version and are either unaware of other variations or claim that different versions are incorrect. Many variations today differ only by scoring:.

Three-player Mahjong or 3- ka is a simplified three-person Mahjong that involves hands of 13 tiles with a total of 84 tiles on the table and may use jokers depending on the variation.

Any rule set can be adapted for three players; however, this is far more common and accepted in Japan, Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines.

It usually eliminates one suit entirely, or tiles in one suit leaving only the terminals. It needs fewer people to start a game and the turnaround time of a game is short—hence, it is considered a fast game.

In some versions there is a jackpot for winning in which whoever accumulates a point of 10 is considered to hit the jackpot or whoever scores three hidden hands first.

The Malaysian and Korean versions drop one wind and may include a seat dragon. Mahjong tables are square and small enough to be within arms-length of all equipment.

The edges are raised to prevent tiles from sliding off and the surface is covered in felt to limit wear on the tiles. Automatic dealing tables are available, often used for high stakes playing and tournaments, are able to shuffle tiles, build walls, and randomize dice.

It is an elaborate device built into a table which uses two alternating sets of tiles. It prepares one wall while the players play one hand.

After the hand is finished the tiles are dropped into the table and a new wall raises upwards. In theory the table should avoid cheating by stacking the deck and or using loaded dice.

There are variations that feature specific use of tiles. Some three-player versions remove the North Wind and one Chinese provincial version has no honors.

Korean Mahjong removes the bamboo suit or at least its numbers 2—8 so that terminals can be used. Japanese Mahjong rarely uses Flowers or Seasons.

Some players accept wild cards when playing Mahjong. The wild cards are decided at the beginning of the game. The wild card can be the next tile after spreading tiles to all players or separately decided by a dice toss.

Wild cards are not allowed to be discarded and can replace any tiles in Chows. Wildcards cannot replace any tiles in Pongs and Kongs.

For example, if a character 4 taken out, then character 4 and the next number 5 can be used as wild cards in this round When the tile showed, the tiles of the same pattern left only 3, so the next tile in the suit will be used as wild cards as well, adding to 7 wild cards for 4 players.

Also, if a tile numbered 9 is chosen, then the number 9 and 1 are wild cards. A feature of several variations of Mahjong, most notably in American mahjong, is the notion of some number of Joker tiles.

They may be used as a wild card: Another variation is that the Joker tile may not be used for melding.

Depending on the variation, a player may replace a Joker tile that is part of an exposed meld belonging to any player with the tile it represents.

Rules governing discarding Joker tiles also exist; some variations permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of any tile, and others only permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of the previously discarded tile or the absence of a tile, if it is the first discard.

Joker tiles may or may not affect scoring, depending on the variation. Some special hands may require the use of Joker tiles for example, to represent a "fifth tile" of a certain suited or honor tile.

Japanese rule sets discourage the use of Flowers and Seasons. In Singapore and Malaysia an extra set of bonus tiles of four animals are used.

The rule set includes a unique function in that players who get two specific animals get a one-time immediate payout from all players.

In Taiwanese Mahjong, getting all eight Flowers and Seasons constitutes an automatic win of the hand and specific payout from all players.

Four of the flower tiles represent the four noble plants of Confucian reckoning:. These animal tiles are used in Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and local variations.

They represent the cat , mouse , rooster and centipede. Like flower tiles, they also function as bonus tiles. However, as they have no corresponding seat position, any player who draws one of these gets a bonus point.

Depending on the variation, two or three dice are usually used to decide what part of the wall to start dealing from.

They are six-sided dice, traditionally but not necessarily Chinese dice with red one and four pips. The dealer marker is a round or square object that the dealer places to the side to remind players who the dealer is.

The wind marker may be used which indicates the current prevailing wind. In some cases the dealer marker and the wind marker are represented by one large marker, usually a small wheel where one can swivel the outer circle to indicate the prevailing wind which the dealer holds onto , a cube with the four winds placed onto four of the sides which can be placed in a hollow square the dealer holds onto it , or a cylinder locked into frame which can be rolled to expose the wind on the top.

Japanese mahjong, especially in a gambling environment, may optionally use four yakitori markers to indicate which players have not won a hand yet and has to pay a bonus.

There are a variety of counting pieces used in different countries. They range from Chinese or Japanese counting sticks thin sticks with various dots on them to represent various points , jetons , play money , paper and pencil or various apps on touchscreen devices used to calculate and keep scores.

All tiles are placed face down and shuffled. Each player then stacks a row of tiles two tiles high in front of him, the length of the row depending on the number of tiles in use:.

In the American variations it is required that, before each hand begins, a Charleston be enacted. In the first exchange, three tiles are passed to the player on one's right; in the next exchange, the tiles are passed to the player opposite, followed by three tiles passed to the left.

If all players are in agreement, a second Charleston is performed; however, any player may decide to stop passing after the first Charleston is complete.

The Charleston is followed by an optional pass to the player across of one, two, or three tiles. The Charleston, a distinctive feature of American Mahjong, may have been borrowed from card games such as Hearts.

Japanese and Korean Mahjong have some special rules. A player cannot win by a discard if that player had already discarded that piece, where players' discards are kept in neat rows in front of them.

Players may declare ready, meaning that they need one tile to win, cannot change their hand and win extra points if they win. Some rules may replace some of the number 5 tiles with red tiles, as they can earn more points.

Korean Mahjong does not allow melded stolen chows. Taiwanese Mahjong adds three tiles to a hand requiring a 5th set to be formed, making a clean hand or all Pong hand very difficult to procure.

American Mahjong has distinctive game mechanics and the article on American Mahjong details these. Some differences include many special patterns, a different scoring system and the use of jokers and five-of-a-kind.

Many variations have specific hands, some of which are common while some are optional depending on regions and players. One example is the Pure Green hand made of chows or Pongs using 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 of bamboo and green dragon.

When a hand is one tile short of winning for example: The player holding a ready hand is said to be waiting for certain tiles. It is common to be waiting for two or three tiles, and some variations award points for a hand that is waiting for one tile.

In tile Mahjong, the largest number of tiles for which a player can wait is 13 the thirteen wonders , or 13 orphans , a nonstandard special hand.

Ready hands must be declared in some variations of Mahjong, while other variations prohibit the same. A new hand begins, and depending on the variant, the Game Wind may change.

For example, in most playing circles in Singapore, if there is at least one Kong when the hand is a draw, the following player of the dealer becomes the next dealer; otherwise, the dealer remains dealer.

The rule is treated the same as "abortive draws". In Japanese Mahjong, rules allow abortive draws to be declared while tiles are still available.

They can be declared under the following conditions:. Scoring in Mahjong involves points, with a monetary value for points agreed upon by players.

Although in many variations scoreless hands are possible, many require that hands be of some point value in order to win the hand. While the basic rules are more or less the same throughout Mahjong, the greatest divergence between variations lies in the scoring systems.

Like the rules, there is a generalized system of scoring, based on the method of winning and the winning hand, from which Chinese and Japanese base their roots.

American Mahjong generally has greatly divergent scoring rules, as well as greatly divergent general rules. Because of the large differences between the various systems of scoring especially for Chinese variants , groups of players will often agree on particular scoring rules before a game.

Points terminology of which differs from variation to variation are obtained by matching the winning hand with different criteria scoring different values.

The points obtained may be modified into scores for each player using some typically exponential functions. Some criteria may be also in terms of both points and score.

In classical Mahjong all players score points. Points are given for sets and hand composition and winning bonuses, doubled and redoubled for basic patterns.

Sometimes a loser may score more points than a winner. Japanese Mahjong has a complex scoring system with several stages of scoring, rules and exceptions, evening out scores and bonus points at the end of a match.

Korean Mahjong has a simple scoring system where only winner scores without any form of doubling.

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Magjong

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