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As part of this contest, the image of reservations for many has changed from being places in which the residents were involuntarily confined to being places of protection from outside forces, especially against the several state governments, traditionally seen as hostile to Native American rights The federal government, despite all of its possible benign neglect -- and the Hollywood image notwithstanding -- has traditionally been regarded as their protector.
A desire to protect their "sovereignty" against state and federal encroachment has motivated both proponents and opponents of Indian gaming, with many proponents seeing it as a means of gaining financial independence from the federal government, and some opponents seeing it as the means by which both state and federal government can increase its presence on the reservation.
This argument, among others, was successfully employed by leaders of the anti-gambling movement in the two occasions when voters on the Navajo reservation, the largest in the country, turned down gambling.
The Supreme Court, in the so-called Cabazon decision of , in effect removed virtually all existing restrictions on gambling on Indian reservations.
What had previously been a relatively small and isolated phenomenon suddenly began growing rapidly. Indian gaming was divided into three classes for purposes of licensing and regulation; Class I covers charitable and social gaming for nominal prizes; class II includes bingo, punch-boards and pull-tabs; Class III facilities include casinos, high-stakes bingo, slot machines, and all other commercial forms of gambling.
As of December 31, , there were tribes operating gaming facilities on and off reservations. In 8 of these states, the only casinos in the state are on Indian reservations.
In , total Class III gaming revenues money wagered minus payouts from all sources: Net income revenues minus expenses: Ten of the tribes accounted for over half of this total.
For purposes of comparison, in the Class III Indian gaming facilities casino-type gaming generated about the same total amount in gaming revenues as the 12 Atlantic City casinos, and surpassed them in Of these facilities, 8 accounted for almost half of the total revenues.
This uneven distribution of revenue earned by individual casinos is similar to that of the industry in Nevada, where a handful of the licensed casinos account for the bulk of the gambling revenues, and unlike that of the Atlantic City casinos, which are far more equal in their share of the local business.
It need be noted that there is no regular, comprehensive reporting of income, expenditures, etc. Many of the figures in the public literature ascribed to Indian gaming are estimates based on dubious statistics.
The most reliable information comes from a General Accounting Office GAO study in which reported accurate data for the first time.
No ongoing reporting source of accurate information is as yet in place. In addition to purposes such as regulating an industry recently brought into existence and beyond the reach of state regulators, IGRA's proponents wanted to use gambling as a means of providing money for financing tribal governments, which often had little or no tax base, and also as part of a general effort to promote the economic self-sufficiency of the tribes.
For this and other reasons, the IRS has determined that for purposes of income taxation, the gambling income of the Indian tribes and their federally-chartered corporations the form casinos usually take are not subject to federal income tax.
Some tribes have chosen to distribute all or a portion of the tribe's net income from gambling to individual tribal members.
However, distributions of tribal money to individual members can only be done if approved by the Secretary of the Interior, following criteria set forth in IGRA.
Money received by individual members of the tribes is fully subject to federal income tax. Without question, Native American reservations have some of the highest rates of poverty, unemployment, welfare dependency, school dropout, alcoholism, and other indicators of poverty and social distress of any communities in the U.
Many are located in remote areas with little indigenous economic activity. Given this background, it is not surprising that gambling has been seized upon by many tribes, as it is one of the few proven and available means of generating income for them.
The prospect of sudden wealth after seemingly endless poverty has given the disputes an element of emotional immediacy that the complex and intransigent constitutional issues themselves probably would lack.
The issue of economic benefit is further complicated by the fact that much of this accrues not to the tribes or their members but to outside individuals, such as non-Indian locals who usually comprise the overwhelming majority of workers in Indian casinos, and the non-Indian corporations which are the usual operators of the casinos.
Under federal law, the individual states have little or no authority over Indian reservations, including the ability to tax or regulate gambling or any other activity.
For example, state officials, including the police, cannot exercise their authority on a reservation without tribal permission.
Although in theory the several states can ban any form of gambling throughout their territory, in practice the lack of authority of state officials over reservations makes enforcement difficult there.
Because the Supreme Court's decision in Cabazon threatened to create islands of virtually unregulated gambling throughout the U.
Other issues may be included. For example, states have typically required tribes to surrender any outstanding land claims in return for approving the compact.
This measure has produced controversy of its own. Some states have been accused of using this proviso to prevent the opening of all or some specific type of gaming facilities, both on and off reservations, either by refusing to negotiate with the tribes, or by allegedly presenting unreasonable conditions.
For their part, some tribes do not want their gambling activities to be restricted at all by any state, however accommodating it may in fact be.
The Interior Department recently announced a plan to give the Secretary of the Interior the power to bypass those state governments which have not negotiated "in good faith" and directly grant permission to any Indian tribe petitioning to open a gambling facility.
This proposed measure has drawn strong protests from several states and raises important issues concerning state and federal constitutional law.
This measure is separate from the subject of current investigations into possible campaign finance irregularities in involving Indian casinos. This rise of gaming not only brought great revenue, but also corruption.
In January , a court case involving lobbyists convicted of felonies such as conspiracy, fraud, and tax evasion. This was known as the Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal.
In , Congress introduced legislation to protect their own casino interests from those tribes that are outside reservations.
These procedures would allow local communities to have more influence in the siting of casinos in their community, and would make the process of casino approval more transparent.
To many tribes, however, the proposed regulations will further encroach on tribal sovereignty. Gaming is divided into 3 classes.
Class I and Class II are traditional Native gaming such as bingo halls, poker halls, and lotteries, and requires no license.
Class III gambling has high jackpots and high-stake games such as casinos, jai alai , and racetracks, and states feared that organized crime would infiltrate the Class III gaming on their reservations.
Most of the revenues generated in the Native gaming are from casinos located in or near large metropolitan areas.
Native gaming operations located in the populous areas of the West Coast primarily California represent the fastest growing sector of the Native gaming industry.
As suggested by the above figures, the vast majority of tribal casinos are much less financially successful, particularly those in the Midwest and Great Plains.
Many tribes see this limited financial success as being tempered by decreases in reservation unemployment and poverty rates, although socioeconomic deficits remain.
As of there are federally recognized tribes in the United States, many of which have chosen not to game.
Gaming says that Oklahoma has the most gaming machines. The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of mandates that net revenues of such gaming be directed to tribes for government, economic development and general welfare use; to charitable organizations and to help fund local governments.
The current compact expires Jan. Today, the property spans 1. The Mohegan Tribe approached the Mashantucket Pequots in the early s for permission to pursue gaming.
Although doing so would relinquish their gaming monopoly in Connecticut, the Mashantuckets granted the Mohegans their request, who then opened Mohegan Sun in The success of both casinos is due in no small part to their location roughly halfway between New York City and Boston.
The economic recession that began in took a heavy toll of receipts, and by both Foxwoods in Connecticut and its nearby rival the Mohegan Sun were deeply in debt.
Founded in , the establishment consists the Circling Raven Golf Club , two luxury hotels, , square feet of casino space, and various restaurants.
In March the Mohawk people created a joint venture with Alpha Hospitality to develop and operate a gaming facility on tribal lands.
Berman 's Catskill Development, L. The project received approval from the National Indian Gaming Commission. In , however, the Mohawk tribe signed an agreement to build the casino with Park Place Entertainment now Caesars Entertainment instead.
The casino is managed by the Mohawk Nation. The state of Indiana's first tribal casino was opened on the 16th of January Native American gaming has, in some instances, changed the face of tribal economies , but it has also proven to be very ineffective in other situations.
Although tribal victories over the governmental and cultural oppression in the s yielded a dynamic transformation, economic success fell short in comparison.
Their strides were spotty and fluctuated greatly from each Native reservation. This was happening because, for most tribes, their lands were not economically productive, infrastructure was poor, and they were far away from prospering markets of large populations.
In order to address the issue of poverty, Native tribes were required to fuel some type of economic development. Natives sold some of their tribal land to prospecting non-Natives in order to stimulate economic growth, but tribal gaming has proved to be the single largest source of income in the Native community.
However, the United States government intervened in tribal affairs throughout the rise of Native gaming. Many tribal governments have seen substantial improvements in their ability to provide public services to their members, such as building schools, improving infrastructure, and shoring up the loss of native traditions.
Tribal gaming operations have not been without controversy, however. A small number of tribes have been able to distribute large per-capita payments, generating considerable public attention.
Additionally, the national expansion of Native gaming has led to a practice critics call reservation shopping.
However, although authorized by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, only three "off-reservation" casinos have been built to date.
The IGWG's purpose is to identify resources to address the most pressing criminal violations in the area of Native gaming.
This group consists of representatives from a variety of FBI subprograms i. The IGWG meets monthly to review Native gaming cases deemed to have a significant impact on the Native gaming industry.
As a result of these meetings, several investigations have been initiated and the IGWG, through its member agencies, has provided financial resources, travel funds, liaison assistance, personnel resources, coordination assistance and consultation.
In order to properly detect the presence of illegal activity in the Native gaming industry, law enforcement offices with jurisdiction in Native gaming violations should:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Indian casinos. For gambling in India, see Gambling in India. Tribal sovereignty in the United States.
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. Impact of Native American gaming. National Indian Gaming Commission. Archived from the original PDF on Washburn, "The Legacy of Bryan v.
Wicazo Sa Review , 12 1 , John Wiley and Sons. Evidence of Recession and Recovery". Atlas of The North American Indian. Landscape Traveled by Coyote and Crane: The World of the Schitsu'umsh.
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